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Opinion: Failures and the origin motives of S.Sudan civil war

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Photo of Rambang Tot speaking at Africa / international students submit

The cause of all problems in South Sudan
To begin South Sudan was an area that was a marginalized region in Sudan before it became an independent Nation after a long struggle ( Anyanya 1955-1972, SPLA –SPLM 1983-2005) that has caused millions of lives of South Sudanese people after fighting for their freedom.
After Independence, South Sudan became home to more than 64 tribes with Majority Dinka and Nuer. Most of these tribes are divided into clans and Sub- clans. Most of them depend on farming and animal husbandry, fishing, making land and pastures the most valuables resources, which have increase into inter-communal fighting among south Sudanese tribes today. Therefore, the only source of revenue after independence is oil only.
What are the failure and the course of the root of the South Sudan conflict? What is the prospective to overcome them?
In order to answer those questions, Let first look at the failure and the course of the root in the first part and in the second part, let look into the future solution.

The failure and the course of the root of South Sudan conflict
Power and Control
The power vested in the presidency by the South Sudan constitution is one of the main causes of the conflict in the country. The constitution grants President Kiir Mayardit the power over legislative and executives to dissolve national and state legislatures that include (Vice-President, Minister, elected governors, judges, etc.). The increase of power of the presidency in the constitutions has caused the main Party (SPLM) political elite to struggle against themselves on who will become the president after leveling Kiir as an authoritarian leader in the SPLM. That struggle has lead into ethnic violent where no Dinka will see non-Dinka as a good leader to lead South Sudan and no Nuer will see non-Nuer as good Leader to lead South Sudan and the same political agenda apply to the rest of South Sudanese tribes
Lack of Professionalism
The lack of professionalism in the security, Judiciary, Parliament has caused more failure as many citizens to see South Sudan security organs as the main organ that only work according to the interest of few political elites while fail to maintain the duties to protect the citizens. Judiciary sectors have also failed to provide fair justice, as many citizens prefer traditional justice. In addition to that, parliament members have also failed to execute their duties base on the constitution rather than being used by the SPLM party. This lack of professionalism has gross human rights violations (Rape, arrest, ethnic target, displacement) mostly the victim are women and children.
Lack of accountability
The mismanagement of the oil revenues and another source of income by the elite has caused more conflict as we have seen today. For example, most of the rebels (Oppositions parties) were part of the government before they were removed and then turn against the same government because they are no longer benefiting from the country’s revenues. Most of the opposition’s parties are fighting against the government because they want to be back to the government position and continue to enrich themselves.
Ethnic Identity
Ethnic identity is one of the main factors contributing to the division and fighting among South Sudanese people. Most of the youth today are simply turn against themselves base on ethnic lines by the elite in order to protect them against anyone trying to reform the country institutions. Therefore, telling the truth can lead someone to death. South Sudanese politicians use ethnic identity as a way to gain power and wealth. That inability of the elite to equitably include all South Sudanese in the sharing of independence dividends is also the cause to fuel the formation of rebels’ groups’ base on different ethnic identity today.

The future solution
Address the problem between Riek and Silva Kiir
The struggle between the two leaders of the country (Kiir and Riek ) must be addressed first to end the suffering of South Sudanese people because Powering-sharing is not the solution as we have witnessed it in the agreement of 2015. Therefore, continuing to use the agreement as a way of solving the problem of South Sudanese people has continued and will continue to escalate the fighting and suffering of innocent South Sudan people. Riek and Kiir need to sit down before the formation of the government of national unity to address their differences otherwise south Sudanese people will continue to suffer.
Promote inclusiveness
South Sudan government has to involve all south Sudanese people in the decisions making in order to avoid the division amongst the lovely community as we have witnessed it with the creation of the current 32 states.
Provide basic governance and public security
In case the unity government will be formed, the transitional government must provide basic services to the public (e.g Health, Education, clean water and sanitation) and return the internally displaced peoples and refugees to their home as well as recovery of theirs resources. This will give back hope to innocent people and build trust amongst South Sudanese communities.
Rebuild the economy
The transitional government must stabilize to restore microeconomics in the short term and put some big project to construct roads amongst the states and connect the country with its neighbor’s countries.

Base on the short above few mentioned roots courses and future solutions. As a citizen, I call upon all South Sudanese leaders to end the war and put our country and the people first. South Sudan is more than more of your interest, your tribe, your region, and religion. We still have hope in you (Leaders) to restore back south Sudan this time and South Sudanese people are one.
Concern citizen
rambangtot@gmail.com
Kingdom of Morocco

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